Nefiracetam belongs to the racetam group of nootropics.
It was originally dervied from piracetam but shares structural features with aniracetam – both of which are lipophilic (fat soluble).
Acute treatment with nefiracetam does not perceptibly enhance memory formation. Chronic dosing (> 7 days) with nefiracetam increases memory formation. This effect has been reproduced in animal studies and to a limited extent in humans.
Daily nefiracetam dosing is also associated with enhanced neurogenesis.
Mechanistically, nefiracetam prolongs calcium channel open time and modulates PKC and CAMKII which boosts cholinergic transmission. This effect is analogous to nicotine. Nefiracetam is also a partial agonist at the glycine site of NMDA-type glutamate receptors.